Research Papers

Experimental Validation Benchmark Data for Computational Fluid Dynamics of Transient Convection From Forced to Natural With Flow Reversal on a Vertical Flat Plate

[+] Author and Article Information
Blake W. Lance

Advanced Nuclear Concepts,
Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
e-mail: blance@sandia.gov

Barton L. Smith

Fellow ASME
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Utah State University,
Logan, UT 84322
e-mail: barton.smith@usu.edu

Manuscript received November 4, 2015; final manuscript received June 4, 2016; published online July 26, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Christopher J. Roy.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Verif. Valid. Uncert 1(3), 031005 (Jul 26, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: VVUQ-15-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4033963 History: Received November 04, 2015; Revised June 04, 2016

Transient convection has been investigated experimentally for the purpose of providing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation benchmark data. A specialized facility for validation benchmark experiments called the rotatable buoyancy tunnel (RoBuT) was used to acquire thermal and velocity measurements of flow over a smooth, vertical heated plate in air. The initial condition was forced convection downward with subsequent transition to mixed convection, ending with natural convection upward after a flow reversal. Data acquisition through the transient was repeated for ensemble-averaged results. With simple flow geometry, validation data were acquired at the benchmark level. All boundary conditions (BCs) were measured and their uncertainties quantified. Temperature profiles on all the four walls and the inlet were measured, as well as as-built test section geometry. Inlet velocity profiles and turbulence levels were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV). System response quantities (SRQs) were measured for comparison with CFD outputs and include velocity profiles, wall heat flux, and wall shear stress. Extra effort was invested in documenting and preserving the validation data. Details about the experimental facility, instrumentation, experimental procedure, materials, BCs, and SRQs are made available through this paper. The latter two are available for download while other details are included in this work.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Fig. 1

The validation hierarchy, after Ref. [6]

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Fig. 2

SRQ difficulty spectrum for arbitrary variables x and y, after Ref. [4]

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Fig. 3

Bulk velocity across the inlet at the spanwise center (z = 0) through time

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Fig. 4

RoBuT flow components as configured in this study

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Fig. 5

Heated wall cross section with component names as in Table 3. The relative thicknesses are to scale.

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Fig. 6

Dewarped SRQ particle images at x2 with mean background removed. Note the image scales are about a factor of nine different. Also, the particles to the extreme right are reflections off the heated wall: (a) SRQ-small FOV with heated wall at right and (b) SRQ-large FOV with heated wall at right and top wall at left.

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Fig. 7

Measured temperatures on the test section boundaries

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Fig. 8

Measured streamwise velocity u¯ at the inlet and the initial condition

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Fig. 9

The streamwise velocity u¯ at three locations in x and five phases of the transient

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Fig. 10

Reynolds normal stress u′u′¯ at three locations in x and five phases of the transient

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Fig. 11

High-resolution PIV data near the heated wall with linear fit that extends from the wall to the last data point with y+≤5

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Fig. 12

The heated wall heat flux plotted through time

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Fig. 13

The heated wall shear stress plotted through time

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Fig. 14

Streamwise velocity u¯ comparison between a steady case and the phase at t = 3.6 s with matched inlet bulk velocity at all three locations in x

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Fig. 15

Streamwise Reynolds stress u′u′¯ comparison between a steady case and the phase at t = 3.6 s with matched inlet bulk velocity at all three locations in x




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