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research-article

Verification and Validation of the FLAG Hydrocode for Impact Cratering Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Wendy K. Caldwell

X-Computational Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281
wkcaldwell@lanl.gov

Abigail Hunter

X-Computational Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545
ahunter@lanl.gov

Catherine S. Plesko

X-Computational Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545
plesko@lanl.gov

Stephen Wirkus

School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ 85306
stephen.wirkus@asu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4042516 History: Received October 03, 2018; Revised January 10, 2019

Abstract

Verification and validation (V&V) are necessary processes to ensure accuracy of the computational methods used to solve problems key to vast numbers of applications and industries. Simulations are essential for addressing impact cratering problems, because these problems often exceed experimental capabilities. Here we show that the FLAG hydrocode, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, can be used for impact cratering simulations by verifying FLAG against two analytical models of aluminum-on-aluminum impacts at different impact velocities and validating FLAG against a glass-into-water laboratory impact experiment. Our verification results show good agreement with the theoretical maximum pressures, with relative errors as low in magnitude as 1.00%. Our validation results demonstrate FLAG's ability to model various stages of impact cratering, with crater radius relative errors as low as 3.48% and crater depth relative errors as low as 0.79%. Our mesh resolution study shows that FLAG converges at resolutions low enough to reduce the required computation time from about 28 hours to about 25 minutes. We anticipate that FLAG can be used to model larger impact cratering problems with increased accuracy and decreased computational cost on current systems relative to other hydrocodes tested by Pierazzo et al. [29].

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