Welding is used in fabrication of structures ranging from small components to large and important structures. One of the important problems associated with welded structures is development of residual stresses and deformations due to welding temperature. In fact when structures are manufactured by welding, a non-uniform temperature distribution is produced. This distribution initially causes a rapid thermal expansion followed by a thermal contraction in the weld and surrounding areas, thus generating inhomogeneous plastic deformation and residual stresses in the weldment when it is cooled. High residual stresses in regions close to the weld may promote brittle fracture, fatigue, or stress corrosion cracking. Meanwhile, distortion in base plate may reduce the buckling strength of structural members. Therefore estimating the magnitude and distribution of welding residual stresses and distortion are necessary for achieving the safest design.
In the present work an elastic-plastic finite element model considering temperature dependent mechanical properties is used to evaluate residual stresses. In this study a parametric model is adopted and the elements birth and death are used in single-pass butt welded joint to simulate the weld filler variation with time. Then numerical results are compared with experimental data.