Benzene emissions occur during operations. These emissions are regulated in several counties. Accordingly, we developed one-dimensional benzene diffusion model advancing in the vertical direction. Unlike other models, the instant model is based on a 1/10 scale modeling of eddy diffusion at the liquid surface during initial loading operations and advection under tank roof during final loading operations. The model input parameters include loading rate, flow rate, cargo tank size, and temperature dependent saturated concentrations. The validity of the model is demonstrated by comparisons with onboard measurements. Other models exist. However, they are based on empirical estimate rather than rational modeling.

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