Nickel-based superalloys are widely used in applications requiring strength at high temperature, and in particular in manufacturing of several important components of both aeronautics and land based gas turbines. The main property of these materials is due to their particular microstructure consisting of a fcc lattice nickel matrix (γ phase), strengthened by precipitation of a second phase Ni3(Ti,Al) (γ′ phase), having fcc lattice. During aging at high temperatures, γ′ precipitates increase their size, following a kinetic law described by the classical LSW theory. In this work the growth kinetic of γ′ precipitates for the superalloy GTD 111 has been investigated by SEM. Samples of the alloy have been aged in the typical range of service temperatures for times up to 8000 hours. For each sample a large number of images has been acquired and the size and distribution of γ′ particles have been evaluated. Plotting the average size values, corresponding to the different times and temperatures analyzed, it was possible to obtain the growth kinetic of these particles, finding that the above mentioned theory gives a good description of the observed behaviour. The data obtained for GTD 111 have been also compared with other data referring to INCONEL 738, obtained from samples aged in the same conditions and analyzed in the same way. GTD 111, when compared to IN738, resulted to have a much slower growth kinetic, resulting in a much higher creep resistance. From the collected data it was possible to calculate also the activation energy for the diffusion process for both alloys, finding out values in agreement with those obtained by other authors and very close to the activation energies of Ti and Al in Ni matrix.
The Coarsening Kinetic of γ′ Particles in Nickel-Based Superalloys During Aging at High Temperatures
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Mastromatteo, F, Niccolai, F, Giannozzi, M, & Bardi, U. "The Coarsening Kinetic of γ′ Particles in Nickel-Based Superalloys During Aging at High Temperatures." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004: Power for Land, Sea, and Air. Volume 4: Turbo Expo 2004. Vienna, Austria. June 14–17, 2004. pp. 851-856. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2004-54214
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