A cycle capable of generating both hydrogen and power with ‘inherent’ carbon capture is proposed and evaluated. The cycle uses chemical looping combustion (CLC) to perform the primary energy release from a hydrocarbon, producing an exhaust of CO. This CO is mixed with steam and converted to H2 and CO2 using the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR). Chemical looping uses two reactions with a re-circulating oxygen carrier to oxidise hydrocarbons. The resulting oxidation and reduction stages are preformed in separate reactors — the oxidiser and reducer respectively, and this partitioning facilitates CO2 capture. In addition, by careful selection of the oxygen carrier, the equilibrium temperature of both redox reactions can be reduced to values below the current industry standard metallurgical limit for gas turbines. This means that the irreversibility associated with the combustion process can be reduced significantly, leading to a system of enhanced overall efficiency. The choice of oxygen carrier also affects the ratio of CO vs. CO2 in the reducer’s flue gas, with some metal oxide reduction reactions generating almost pure CO. This last feature is desirable if the maximum H2 production is to be achieved using the WGSR reaction. Process flow diagrams of one possible embodiment using a zinc based oxygen carrier are presented. To generate power, the chemical looping system is operated as part of a gas turbine cycle, combined with a bottoming steam cycle to maximise efficiency. The WGSR supplies heat to the bottoming steam cycle, as well as helping to raise the steam necessary to complete the reaction. A mass and energy balance of the chemical looping system, the WGSR reactor, steam bottoming cycle and balance of plant, is presented and discussed. The results of this analysis show that the overall efficiency of the complete cycle is dependant on the operating pressure in the oxidiser, and under optimum conditions, exceeds 75%.
- International Gas Turbine Institute
Producing Hydrogen and Power Using Chemical Looping Combustion and Water-Gas Shift
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McGlashan, NR, Childs, PRN, Heyes, AL, & Marquis, AJ. "Producing Hydrogen and Power Using Chemical Looping Combustion and Water-Gas Shift." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea, and Air. Volume 4: Cycle Innovations; Industrial and Cogeneration; Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy; Marine. Orlando, Florida, USA. June 8–12, 2009. pp. 177-188. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2009-59492
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