The prediction of aerodynamic blade forcing is a very important topic in turbomachinery design. Usually, the wake from the upstream blade row and the potential field from the downstream blade row are considered as the main causes for excitation, which in conjunction with relative rotation of neighboring blade rows, give rise to dynamic forcing of the blades. In addition to those two mechanisms so-called Tyler-Sofrin (or scattered or spinning) modes, which refer to the acoustic interaction with blade rows further up- or downstream, may have a significant impact on blade forcing. In particular, they lead to considerable blade-to-blade variations of the aerodynamic loading. In part 1 of the paper a study of these effects is performed on the basis of a quasi 3D multi-row and multi-passage compressor configuration.

Part 2 of the paper proposes a method to analyze the interaction of the aerodynamic forcing asymmetries with the already well-studied effects of random mistuning stemming from blade-to-blade variations of structural properties. Based on a finite element model of a sector, the equations governing the dynamic behavior of the entire bladed disk can be efficiently derived using substructuring techniques. The disk substructure is assumed as cyclically symmetric, while the blades exhibit structural mistuning and linear aeroelastic coupling. In order to avoid the costly multi-stage analysis, the variation of the aerodynamic loading is treated as an epistemic uncertainty, leading to a stochastic description of the annular force pattern. The effects of structural mistuning and stochastic aerodynamic forcing are first studied separately and then in a combined manner for a blisk of a research compressor without and with aeroelastic coupling.

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