A Carbon/Carbon composite (C/C composite) consists of reinforced fibers, matrices and interfaces. Each of them plays an important role to dominate the properties of the C/C composite. Matrix microstructure of a C/C composite can be changed during its preparation, i.e., by its preparation condition. In this paper, we discuss methods for changing matrix microstructure of a C/C composite and the dependency on its properties: Young’s modulus, strength and thermal conductivity. The matrix microstructure depends primarily on the initial raw material (precursor) of the matrix. Secondary, it depends on the heat-treatment temperature. It also can be controlled by addition of fine powders and surface-treatment on fibers. All the properties measured strongly depend on the matrix microstructure of the C/C composite. To make a tailored C/C composite, it is necessary to control the matrix microstructure precisely.

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