Flow experiments in a single-pass heat exchanger using JP-8 and certain additives were initiated under controlled conditions to explore the effects of a metal surface on deposition. The experimental apparatus permitted a unique viewing of the time evolution of deposits at different axial locations under conditions of limited oxygen availability somewhat similar to that in jet aircraft. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposit microstructure. In addition, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy determined the chemical composition of the deposits. Oxygen concentration measurements in the bulk flow were also performed, and the observed transient oxidation behavior was related to measured time-dependent changes in the deposit.
Increasing dissolved oxygen levels and large changes in deposition were characteristic of the induction time. Mechanisms of fouling in the heated and cooled sections were different. Spectroscopic analysis indicated that deposits formed in the heated section had chemical compositions different from those formed in the cooled section. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in microstructure between the heated and cooled sections: more uniform deposits formed in the cooled section as a result of once-soluble species becoming insoluble at low temperatures. In addition, the JP-8 additives significantly reduced fouling in the heated section, but their effectiveness in the cooled section, especially after large periods, was unclear.