Blade failures account for as many as 42% of failures in gas turbines. This paper covers approaches to detect and avoid blade failures by direct and indirect measurement techniques. Direct measurements involve the use of special sensors or methods that measure blading vibration or condition. Indirect techniques do not quantitatively measure blade conditions but provide qualitative information that help in avoiding blade problems. Metallurgical tests of hot section blades to determine microstructure changes are also covered. A blade failure troubleshooting chart is furnished to assist users in diagnosing common failure modes.

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