This paper documents results from an experimental study performed to determine the effects of several ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels (< 15 ppm S) on exhaust emissions from a 1,500 kW EMD 16-645-E, roots-blown, diesel locomotive engine. U.S. EPA-regulated emission levels of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate (PM) were measured using U.S. EPA locomotive test procedures while operating on four ULSD fuels, plus a fifth baseline fuel which was a commercially-available Federal on-highway diesel fuel (< 500 ppm). The four ULSD fuels were (1) a ULSD California motor vehicle diesel fuel (CARB fuel) with an aromatic content of less than 10 percent, (2) a ULSD “equivalent” California motor vehicle diesel fuel with an aromatic content of 24 percent, (3 and 4) two custom blended “2006 ULSD Federal” diesel fuels with relatively low Cetane Numbers and higher aromatic levels. This paper reports the changes observed in the regulated exhaust emission levels between the ULSD CARB diesel fuels and the ULSD Federal diesel fuels.

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