In this study, the effect of hardened depth on failure modes and fatigue strengths of induction-hardened sintered powder metal test rollers and spur gears is elucidated also with the effect of relative radius of curvature of the test rollers. These experimental results are discussed by an amplitude of ratio of orthogonal shear stress to Vickers hardness. Failure mode of the test rollers was spelling due to subsurface origin crack with slight micropits and that of the test gears was pitting due to surface origin crack with spall near the pitch point independent of the hardened depth. The depths of spalling cracks agreed almost with the occurring depths of peak amplitude of the ratio of orthogonal shear stress to Vickers hardness. Surface durability of the test rollers increased as the surface hardness increased and the relative radius of curvature decreased almost independent of the hardened depth. Surface fatigue life of the test gears was hardly influenced by the hardened depth.