A new robot kinematic calibration procedure is presented. The parameters of the kinematic model are estimated through a relationship established between the deviations in the joint variables and the deviations in the model parameters. Thus, the new method can be classified as an inverse calibration procedure. Using suitable sensitivity analysis methods, the matrix of the partial derivatives of joint variables with respect to robot parameters is calculated without having explicit expressions of joint variables as a function of task space coordinates (closed inverse kinematic solution). This matrix provides the relationship between the changes in the joint variables and the changes in the parameter values required for the calibration. Two deterministic sensitivity analysis methods are applied, namely the Direct Sensitivity Approach and the Adjoint Sensitivity Method. The new calibration procedure was successfully tested by the simulated calibrations of a two degree of freedom revolute-joint planar manipulator.