Metamodeling techniques have been widely used in engineering design to improve the efficiency in simulation and optimization of design systems that involve computationally expensive simulation programs. Many existing applications are restricted to deterministic optimization. Very few studies have been conducted on studying the accuracy of using metamodels for optimization under uncertainty. In this paper, using a two-bar structure system design as an example, various metamodeling techniques are tested for different formulations of optimization under uncertainty. Observations are made on the applicability and accuracy of these techniques, the impact of sample size, and the optimization performance when different formulations are used to incorporate uncertainty. Some important issues for applying metamodels to optimization under uncertainty are discussed.

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