Data-driven prognostics typically requires sufficient offline training data sets for accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of engineering products. This paper investigates performances of typical data-driven methodologies when the amount of training data sets is insufficient. The purpose is to better understand these methodologies especially when offline training datasets are insufficient. The neural network, similarity-based approach, and copula-based sampling approach were investigated when only three run-to-failure training units were available. The example of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery capacity degradation was employed for the demonstration.

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