Various types of uncertainties, such as parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty, metamodeling uncertainty may lead to low robustness. Parameter uncertainty can be either epistemic or aleatory in physical systems, which have been widely represented by intervals and probability distributions respectively. Model uncertainty is formally defined as the difference between the true value of the real-world process and the code output of the simulation model at the same value of inputs. Additionally, metamodeling uncertainty is introduced due to the usage of metamodels. To reduce the effects of uncertainties, robust optimization (RO) algorithms have been developed to obtain solutions being not only optimal but also less sensitive to uncertainties. Based on how parameter uncertainty is modeled, there are two categories of RO approaches: interval-based and probability-based. In real-world engineering problems, both interval and probabilistic parameter uncertainties are likely to exist simultaneously in a single problem. However, few works have considered mixed interval and probabilistic parameter uncertainties together with other types of uncertainties. In this work, a general RO framework is proposed to deal with mixed interval and probabilistic parameter uncertainties, model uncertainty, and metamodeling uncertainty simultaneously in design optimization problems using the intervals-of-statistics approaches. The consideration of multiple types of uncertainties will improve the robustness of optimal designs and reduce the risk of inappropriate decision-making, low robustness and low reliability in engineering design. Two test examples are utilized to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed RO approach.

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