The oil-in-water emulsion has been widely used as lubricant in metal working such as metal rolling and cutting. The film formation ability of emulsion was considered as an important factor for evaluating the lubricating effectiveness. Although the film formation characteristics have been widely investigated, the mechanism is still not well understood. Furthermore there were seldom results reported on the emulsion with an oil volume percentage less than 1%. The film formation characteristic of emulsions with ultra-low oil concentration (0.005vol%) between a smooth plate and a highly polished steel ball was investigated. The effects of oil concentration and emulsifier concentration were investigated. New viewpoints on the film formation mechanism of emulsion were proposed.

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