To understand the influence of cast iron microstructure on its machinability, a numerical model that simulates machined material on a microstructure scale was developed. This microstructure-level model assembles individual constituents into a composite material based on microstructural composition, grain size, and distribution. Extensive experimentation was performed to determine strain, strain rate, temperature, and load history dependent material properties. The purpose of this work is to validate the microstructure-level model on machining of ductile iron and two of its constituents: pearlite and ferrite. Orthogonal cutting experiments were conducted of the three materials. The measured chip morphology and machining forces were compared with the model predictions, and a good correlation between them was found.