This paper presents an analytical convolution model of dynamic cutting forces in ball end milling of 3-D plane surfaces. The model takes into account the instantaneous slope on a sculptured surface to establish the chip geometry in cutting force calculation algorithm. A three-dimensional model of cutting forces in ball end milling is presented in terms of material properties, cutting parameters, machining configuration, and tool/work geometry. Based on the relationship of the local cutting force, chip load and engaged boundary, the total cutting force model is established via the angle domain convolution integration of the local forces in the feed, cross feed, axial direction, and inclination angle. The convolution integral leads to a periodic function of cutting forces in the angle domain and an explicit expression of the dynamic cutting force components in the frequency domain. Following the theoretical analysis, experimental study is discussed to illustrate the implementation procedure for force identification, and frequency domain data are presented to verify the analytical results.

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