Abstract

Solidification starts with nucleation that comes from the clustering of molecules, followed by deposition of molecules upon the nuclei or grain growth. In materials dynamics, these events are modeled at a spatial scale of microns and a temporal scale of micro seconds. On the other hand, the electrodynamic, fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in solidifying metals are observable and thus modeled at a scale of millimeters (or sometimes centimeters) and a fraction of a second. An integrated macro/micro model is developed to represent the evolution of complex electrodynamic and transport phenomena and microstructure formation in solidifying metals with electromagnetic stirring applied to affect the solidification micrstructures. The model development is based on the hybrid boundary/finite element solution of the Maxwell equations and the finite element solution of the momentum and thermal transport equations, in combination with the Monte-Carlo-Cellular-Automaton representation of the evolution of solidification microstructure formation. Parallel computing has been applied to speed up the microstruture formation simulation, which is the most time consuming part of the calculations. The model should be useful to further our fundamental understanding of flow and microstructure formation in electromagnetically-assisted processes such as electromagnetic casting, arc welding, and vacuum refining.

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