The turbulent flow in rectangular-sectioned U-bend ducts with bend mid-line radius 3.35 and with aspect-ratios AR=0.5, 1, 2, and 4 were explored using linear and non-linear high- and low-Re k-ε turbulence models at a Reynolds number of 56000. The impact of the cross-section aspect ratio on the flow field and the associated thermal field was studied. Experimental data were found [1–3] for the square-sectioned cross section (AR=1) and this case was chosen as the reference case for comparison and validation with experimental data. The other cases were evaluated in relation to the square-sectioned case. The predicted data for AR=1 agreed well with the experimental data. The velocity profile upstream the bend has fundamental influence on the strength of the secondary flow and heat transfer. Complex secondary motion was detected for all cases but in particular for AR=1. The mixing process due to the secondary flow decreased in general with increasing aspect ratio.
Heat Transfer Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Rectangular-Sectioned U-Bends
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Etemad, S, & Sunde´n, B. "Heat Transfer Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Rectangular-Sectioned U-Bends." Proceedings of the ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Heat Transfer, Volume 1. Anaheim, California, USA. November 13–19, 2004. pp. 259-266. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2004-60977
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