The short-circuiting metal transfer during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is simulated by a numerical model. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time the energy equation and the Marangoni convection are considered in analyzing the short-circuiting time. A front-tracking free surface method is applied to explicitly track the bridge profile. To benchmark this method, effects of the density and viscosity ratios between different phases are investigated by simulating a drop driven by surface tension. The temporal profile of the drop is compared to that computed by a Volume of Fluid (VOF) model, and very good agreement is found. The model is then applied to simulate GMAW short-circuiting transfer. The velocity, pressure, temperature and electromagnetic fields are calculated. Effects of welding current and Marangoni shear stress on short-circuiting time are examined. It is shown that the Marangoni effect plays an important role in GMAW short-circuiting transfer.

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