In a conventional bilateral teleoperation, transmission delay over the Internet can potentially cause instability. The wave variables algorithm can solve this problem at the cost of poor transient response. The wave variables algorithm with adaptive predictor and drift control based on our previous work  has been proposed to provide stability under time delay with improved performance. The effectiveness of this algorithm is fully evaluated using human subjects with no previous experience in haptics. Three algorithms are tested using Phantom haptic devices as master and slave: conventional bilateral teleoperation with no transmission delay as control, wave variables with 200-300 ms transmission delay one way, and wave variables with adaptive predictor and direct drift control (WAPD) also with 200-300 ms delay one way. For each algorithm the human subjects are asked to perform three simple tasks: free space trajectory tracking, surface contour identification, and maze navigation. The results show WAPD to be superior to regular wave variables algorithm with higher subject ratings.
Human Evaluation of Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Using Wave Variables With Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control
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Ching, H, & Book, WJ. "Human Evaluation of Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Using Wave Variables With Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control." Proceedings of the ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Dynamic Systems and Control, Parts A and B. Chicago, Illinois, USA. November 5–10, 2006. pp. 1355-1364. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2006-14721
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