A numerical model has been constructed to assess the depth of injury incurred when skin is exposed to heated water. The model includes an extended duration which occurs when clothing, saturated with hot water is kept in contact with the skin after the direct exposure has ended. The model takes data from a broad summary of the literature which examines the ranges of reported tissue thicknesses, tissue thermophysical properties, and blood perfusion. Water temperatures ranging from 60–90°C and total exposure durations up to 110 seconds were modeled. As expected, longer durations and elevated temperatures lead to a greater extent of tissue injury. Calculated values of tissue injury were compared with prior injury reports. These reports, taken from the literature, reinforce the present calculations. It is seen that numerical models can accurately predict burn injury as observed in clinical settings, in fact, the calculations of burn injury presented here provide more information for the appropriate treatment of burn injuries compared to visual observation.
Calculations of Scald Burns: Effects of Water Temperature, Exposure Duration, and Clothing
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Johnson, N, Abraham, J, & Helgeson, Z. "Calculations of Scald Burns: Effects of Water Temperature, Exposure Duration, and Clothing." Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 2: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. November 12–18, 2010. pp. 199-208. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2010-37202
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