This contribution is the first part of three papers on Adaptive Multigrid Methods for eXtended Fluid-Structure Interaction (eXFSI) Problem, where we introduce a monolithic variational formulation and solution techniques. In a monolithic nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI), the fluid and structure models are formulated in different coordinate systems. This makes the FSI setup of a common variational description difficult and challenging. This article presents the state-of-the-art of recent developments in the finite element approximation of FSI problem based on monolithic variational formulation in the well-established arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. This research will focus on the newly developed mathematical model of a new FSI problem which is called eXtended Fluid-Structure Interaction (eXFSI) problem in ALE framework. This model is used to design an on-live Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system in order to determine the wave propagation in moving domains and optimum locations for SHM sensors. eXFSI is strongly coupled problem of typical FSI with a wave propagation problem on the fluid-structure interface, where wave propagation problems automatically adopted the boundary conditions from of the typical FSI problem at each time step. The ALE approach provides a simple, but powerful procedure to couple fluid flows with solid deformations by a monolithic solution algorithm. In such a setting, the fluid equations are transformed to a fixed reference configuration via the ALE mapping. The goal of this work is the development of concepts for the efficient numerical solution of eXFSI problem, the analysis of various fluid-mesh motion techniques and comparison of different second-order time-stepping schemes. This work consists of the investigation of different time stepping scheme formulations for a nonlinear FSI problem coupling the acoustic/elastic wave propagation on the fluid-structure interface. Temporal discretization is based on finite differences and is formulated as an one step-θ scheme; from which we can consider the following particular cases: the implicit Euler, Crank-Nicolson, shifted Crank-Nicolson and the Fractional-Step-θ schemes. The nonlinear problem is solved with Newton’s method whereas the spatial discretization is done with a Galerkin finite element scheme. To control computational costs we apply a simplified version of a posteriori error estimation using the dual weighted residual (DWR) method. This method is used for the mesh adaptation during the computation. The implementation is accomplished via the software library package DOpElib and deal.II for the computation of different eXFSI configurations.

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