The failure of electrical devices associated with solder joints has become one of the most critical reliability issues for surface-mounted devices. Solder joint reliability performance has been found to be highly dependent on the solder joint configuration, which, in turn, is governed by bond pad size, alloy material, and leadframe structure, as well as solder reflow characteristics. To investigate Tombstone effect causing solder joint failure during leadless component reflow process, this work has focused on 1) developing numerical model for the simulations of the solder joint formation during the reflow process; 2) determining possibility that a tombstone effect for the leadless component may occur by analyzing the force and torque in the problem. Using this methodology, the Tombstone effect associated with different pad geometry configurations has been analyzed though the application of the software tool Surface Evolver. Simulations show that the tombstoning is very sensitive to pad / component geometry design, solder surface tension, paste volume, wetting area and wetting angle. This model simulation can be used to determine optimal solder paste volume, pad geometry configurations and solder material for avoiding Tombstone effect.

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