Performance uncertainty is a barrier to implementation of innovative technologies. This research investigates the potential of flexible design — one that enables future change — to improve the economic performance of a naturally ventilated building. The flexible design of the naturally ventilated building enables future installation of a mechanical cooling system by including features such as space for pipes and chillers. The benefits of the flexible design are energy savings, delay of capital costs and capability of mitigating the risk of a failed building (by installing the mechanical cooling system). To evaluate the flexible design, building energy simulation is conducted over a multi-year time period with stochastic outdoor temperature variables. One result is a probability distribution of the time when the maximum allowable indoor temperature under natural ventilation is exceeded, which may be “never.” Probability distributions are also obtained for energy savings and cost savings as compared to a mechanically cooled building. Together, these results allow decision-makers to evaluate the long-term performance risks and opportunities afforded by a flexible implementation strategy for natural ventilation. It is shown that the likelihood of future installation of mechanical cooling is most sensitive to design parameters. The impact of increased climate variability depends on the local climate. The probability of installing the mechanical system also depends on the comfort criteria. The results show that capital costs for cooling equipment are much greater than the present value of 10 years of cooling energy costs. This result motivates consideration of flexible design as opposed to hybrid cooling designs (which have immediate installation of mechanical cooling). Future work will study the impact of uncertain energy prices on investment attractiveness of naturally ventilated buildings. Other applications of the framework presented herein include replacing the building energy model with a model of another climate-dependent system, such as solar photovoltaic arrays.
Reducing the Risk of Natural Ventilation With Flexible Design
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Greden, LV, Glicksman, LR, & Lo´pez-Betanzos, G. "Reducing the Risk of Natural Ventilation With Flexible Design." Proceedings of the ASME 2006 International Solar Energy Conference. Solar Energy. Denver, Colorado, USA. July 8–13, 2006. pp. 639-649. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ISEC2006-99150
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