With the development of high-power and high-torque machines, requirements for high-power density electronics are increasing. Thermal management of such systems requires high heat extraction. Conventional air cooling based heat sinks and cold plate based liquid cooling have their own benefits for various applications but has limitations for high power density applications. The current study explores a jet impingement based direct substrate cooling system that was implemented for a SiC based direct bonded Cu substrate for various power losses. Numerical comparison between jet impingement cooling and conventional horizontal/indirect cooling (pin fin heat sink and genetic algorithm-optimized heat sink) showed that the area weighted average of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is high for both horizontal cooling designs, and the local HTC is higher for jet impingement. Design iterations were undertaken to resolve the bottleneck of this cooling system. Increasing the number of nozzles helped to cover more area at the direct bonded Cu bottom plate, which drops the chip temperature considerably. With a constant flow rate, increasing the number of nozzles would decrease local jet velocity, which reduces the heat extraction by jet impingement. This issue can be addressed by reducing the diameter of nozzle but doing so results in a high pressure drop where the design constraint is 2 psi. A flared nozzle design is proposed, which has a higher spreading angle of the jet that increases the flow coverage and reduces the pressure drop of the coolant loop.

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