Abstract

Maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS) require accurate future state projection to initiate collision-avoidance manoeuvres. Forecasts of the vessels’ trajectories and motions are fundamentally based on the mathematical manoeuvring model, which is an essential component of their hydrodynamic digital twin nowadays. Using the benchmark container ship KCS as an object of study, this paper adopts a 4-DOF modular-type manoeuvring (MMG) model to predict the vessel trajectories in calm water and under the presence of steady current and regular waves. The current effects are treated as additional ship over water speed, while the wave effects are considered by superimposing the second-order mean wave drift loads to the calm water hull hydrodynamics. The wave drift loads are solved using the potential flow solver WASIM, which is based on Rankine panel method. The computed vessel trajectories and motions are compared with available literature results and show good correlation.

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