Lifetime of reactor pressure vessels practically depends on a level of degradation of RPV material properties during operation. The most important degradating mechanism of RPV materials is usually radiation damage, characterized by values on neutron fluence on one side and radiation embrittlement of RPV materials on the second side. WWER reactor pressure vessels in the Czech Republic are a subject of a very thorough and complex monitoring program, that includes: • Standard material surveillance program containing of WWER-440 RPV materials — base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone, but irradiated with high lead factor (13 to 18), • Supplementary surveillance program of WWER-440 RPV materials, including additionally austenitic cladding materials, IAEA reference material JRQ irradiated with low lead factor (2 to 3) with parts subjected to annealing and re-irradiation after annealing, • Modified surveillance program of WWER-1000 RPV materials — base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone, cladding materials, IAEA reference JRQ material irradiated in low lead factor (2 to 3) near RPV inner beltline region, • Integrated surveillance specimen program for WWER-1000 reactor including materials from NPP Temelin (Czech Republic), Belene (Bulgaria), Kalinin (Russia) and Ukranian NPPs, • Continous exvessel monitoring of neutron fluence on outer RPV surface for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000 plants, • Neutron fluence determination on inner RPV surface (austenitic cladding) using special technique for removal of specimens from cladding for Nb activity measurements, • Ex-vessel temperature measurements during RPV operation. All these programs serve for precision of operation conditions and determination of degradation of RPV materials for RPV integrity and lifetime assessment.
Complex Monitoring Programme for WWER Reactor Pressure Vessels Lifetime Assessment in the Czech Republic
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Brumovsky, M, Kytka, M, Novosad, P, & Brynda, J. "Complex Monitoring Programme for WWER Reactor Pressure Vessels Lifetime Assessment in the Czech Republic." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 7: Operations, Applications and Components. Chicago, Illinois, USA. July 27–31, 2008. pp. 537-548. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2008-61480
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