Recently, two nanotechnologies have emerged as promising hyperthermia therapies due to their ability to confine adequate thermal energy in tumors. Both overcome the limitations of traditional hyperthermia approaches such as microwave and ultrasound, which have short penetration depths into tissue and often cause collateral thermal damage to the superficial tissue layers. One uses magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat when the nanoparticles are subject to an alternating magnetic field [1–2]. The other one uses gold nanoshells or nanorods in laser induced photothermal therapy [3–4]. By varying the geometric ratio, the nanostructures can be tuned to have strong absorption and scattering to a specific laser wavelength. The enhancement in laser energy absorption would confine the laser energy in a tumor area congregating by the nanostructure. The efficacy of these two methods relies on the achieved tumor temperature elevations which are largely determined by the nanostructure concentration distribution in the tumor. Therefore, having an imaging technique to directly visualize and analyze the three-dimensional nanostructure distribution in tumors would greatly improve treatment protocols to kill all tumor cells while avoiding overheating in the surrounding healthy tissue.

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