One of the important issues to conduct the damage detection of a structure using vibration-based damage detection (VBDD) is not only to detect the damage but also to locate and quantify the damage. In this paper a systematic way of damage assessment, including identification of damage location and damage quantification, is proposed by using output-only measurement. Four level of damage identification algorithms are proposed. First, to identify the damage occurrence, null-space and subspace damage index are used. The eigenvalue difference ratio is also discussed for detecting the damage. Second, to locate the damage, the change of mode shape slope ratio and the prediction error from response using singular spectrum analysis are used. Finally, to quantify the damage the RSSI-COV algorithm is used to identify the change of dynamic characteristics together with the model updating technique, the loss of stiffness can be identified. Experimental data collected from the bridge foundation scouring in hydraulic lab was used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methods. The computation efficiency of each method is also discussed so as to accommodate the online damage detection.

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