The growth and morphology of tribofilms, generated from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and an ashless dialkyldithiophosphate (DDP) over a wide range of rubbing times (10 seconds to 10 hours) and concentrations (0.1 to 5 wt % ZDDP), have been examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the O, P and S K-edges, and the P, S, and Fe L-edges. The physical aspects of the growth and morphology of the tribofilms will be presented here (Part I) and the chemistry of the films will be discussed in (Part II).
Tribofilms Generated From ZDDP and DDP on Steel Surfaces: Part 1 — Growth, Wear and Morphology
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Zhang, Z, Yamaguchi, ES, Kasrai, M, & Bancroft, GM. "Tribofilms Generated From ZDDP and DDP on Steel Surfaces: Part 1 — Growth, Wear and Morphology." Proceedings of the World Tribology Congress III. World Tribology Congress III, Volume 1. Washington, D.C., USA. September 12–16, 2005. pp. 617-618. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/WTC2005-63246
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