A semi-analytical method to predict springback in sheet metal forming processes has been developed for the case of plane strain. In the proposed hybrid method, for each deformation increment, bending, and unbending stretches are analytically superposed on membrane stretches which are numerically obtained in advance from a membrane finite element code. Springback is then obtained by the unloading of a force and a bending moment at the boundary of each element treated as a shell. Hill’s 1948 yield criterion with normal anisotropy is used in this theory along with kinematic and isotropic hardening laws during reverse loading. The method has been applied for the springback prediction of a 2008-T4 aluminum alloy in plane-strain draw-bending tests. The results indicate the necessity of including anisotropic hardening (especially Bauschinger effects) and elastoplastic unloading in order to achieve good agreement with experimental results.
A Hybrid Membrane/Shell Method for Rapid Estimation of Springback in Anisotropic Sheet Metals
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Pourboghrat, F., Chung, K., and Richmond, O. (September 1, 1998). "A Hybrid Membrane/Shell Method for Rapid Estimation of Springback in Anisotropic Sheet Metals." ASME. J. Appl. Mech. September 1998; 65(3): 671–684. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2789110
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