The object of this paper is to present a correlation between residual stresses, obtained by heat-treatment, with fatigue values, determined from an investigation of full-size railroad axles. The axles tested were of both solid and tubular design and represent members which could be used under a car in actual service. It was found from these tests that high axle fatigue strength is associated with high surface residual compressive stresses, and lowest axle strength values with surface residual tensile stresses.

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