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Journal Articles
Article Type: Review Articles
Appl. Mech. Rev. November 2021, 73(6): 060801.
Paper No: AMR-20-1090
Published Online: January 10, 2022
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( a ) The Ahmed vehicle model and ( b ) a heavy vehicle (adapted from Choi ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 1 ( a ) The Ahmed vehicle model and ( b ) a heavy vehicle (adapted from Choi et al. [ 1 ]). Republished with permission from Choi et al. [ 1 ]. Copyright 2014 by Annual Reviews, Inc.; permission conveyed through Copyright by Clearance Center, Inc. ( c ) Dimensions of the original Ahmed model ... More
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( a ) Dependence of  C D   on  φ  [ 2 ]. Typical flow structures of ( b ) h...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 2 ( a ) Dependence of C D on φ [ 2 ]. Typical flow structures of ( b ) high-drag regime and ( c ) low-drag regime. (a) Dependence of CD on φ [2]. Typical flow structures of (b) high-drag regime and (c) low-drag regime. More
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( a ) Percentages of previous studies on the Ahmed body wake for different ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 3 ( a ) Percentages of previous studies on the Ahmed body wake for different regimes. ( b ) Percentage distribution of various physical quantities investigated in previous experimental studies. The total number of papers for the statistics in ( a ) is 52, as listed in Tables 1 and 2 ; ( b ... More
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( a ) Percentages of past investigations on the active drag reduction of di...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 4 ( a ) Percentages of past investigations on the active drag reduction of different Ahmed bodies. ( b ) Percentage distribution of various drag reduction techniques. The total number of papers for the statistics for is 47, as listed in Tables 4 – 6 . PB = pulsed blowing; SB = steady blowing... More
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Collection of Strouhal number data in the literature for various Re in the ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 5 Collection of Strouhal number data in the literature for various Re in the wake of an Ahmed body with φ  = 25 deg: ( a ) St r , ( b ) St s , and ( c ) St w . Symbols: △, ◇ [ 18 ]; ▷ [ 24 ]; ◆ [ 40 ]; △ [ 43 ]; ◁ [ 47 ]; ◻ [ 52 ]; ▲ [ 55 ]; ○ [ 58 ]; ▽ [ 59 ]; and ⋆ [ 95 ]. Collecti... More
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Dependences of St  l   and St  g   on Re for an Ahmed body with  φ  = 25 de...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 6 Dependences of St l and St g on Re for an Ahmed body with φ  = 25 deg [ 58 ]. Symbols △ and ▽ denote St l and St g , respectively. Dependences of Stl and Stg on Re for an Ahmed body with φ = 25 deg [58]. Symbols △ and ▽ denote Stl and Stg, respectively. More
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A conceptual model of the flow structure around the high-drag Ahmed body of...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 7 A conceptual model of the flow structure around the high-drag Ahmed body of φ  = 25 deg. Re = (0.45–2.4) × 10 5 . Reproduced with permission from Zhang et al. [ 58 ]. Copyright 2015 by Cambridge University Press. A conceptual model of the flow structure around the high-drag Ahmed body of... More
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Dependence of ( a ) St  w   and ( b )      St    w    +      on  φ , along ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 8 Dependence of ( a ) St w and ( b ) St w + on φ , along with ( c ) the schematic of the generation of the vortical structure. Symbols: △, ▷ [ 24 ] (Re = 8.9 × 10 5 ); ◇ [ 40 ] (Re = 5.9 × 10 5 ); ◀ [ 41 ] (Re = 4.4 × 10 5 ); ▽ [ 49 ] (Re = 1.1 × 10 5 ); ◻ [ 52 ] (Re = 0.7... More
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A conceptual model of the flow structure around the low-drag Ahmed body of ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 9 A conceptual model of the flow structure around the low-drag Ahmed body of φ  = 35 deg. Re = 0.6 × 10 5 . Reproduced with permission from Liu et al. [ 69 ]. Copyright 2021 by Cambridge University Press. A conceptual model of the flow structure around the low-drag Ahmed body of φ = 35 deg... More
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Dependence on Re of ( a ) St  w   and ( b ) St  y   in the wake of a square...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 10 Dependence on Re of ( a ) St w and ( b ) St y in the wake of a square-back Ahmed body. Symbols: ◆ [ 30 ]; ▽ [ 49 ]; ○ [ 54 ]; ● [ 57 ]; ◻ [ 60 ]; ▼ [ 107 ]; ■ [ 109 ]; ◇ [ 110 ]; ☆ [ 111 ]; and ★ [ 113 ]. Dependence on Re of (a) Stw and (b) Sty in the wake of a square-back Ahmed bo... More
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Photographs captured from flow visualization measurements behind the base o...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 11 Photographs captured from flow visualization measurements behind the base of a square-back Ahmed body in flow configurations of ( a ) steady symmetric, ( b ) unsteady symmetric, ( c ) steady asymmetric, and ( d ) unsteady asymmetric. ( a ) Re = 310; ( b ) and ( c ) 365; and ( d ) 415. Top ... More
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Time evolution of ( a )  y w   and ( b )  z w   and the associated probabil...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 12 Time evolution of ( a ) y w and ( b ) z w and the associated probability densities in the ( y , z ) plane of x*  = 0.86. Reproduced with permission from Grandemange et al. [ 49 ]. Copyright 2013 by Cambridge University Press. Time evolution of (a) yw and (b) zw and the associated... More
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Conditional-averaged sectional streamlines with the distributions of ( a ) ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 13 Conditional-averaged sectional streamlines with the distributions of ( a ) V xy * in ( x , y ) plane of z*  = 0.52 (top) and ( b ) U * in ( y , z ) plane of x*  = 0.86 (bottom) corresponding to the P state, where the angular brackets and t... More
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Schematics of the hairpin vortex in the wake of the square-back body corres...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 14 Schematics of the hairpin vortex in the wake of the square-back body corresponding to the P state. Reproduced with permission from Pavia et al. [ 121 ]. Copyright 2018 by Springer Nature. Schematics of the hairpin vortex in the wake of the square-back body corresponding to the P state.... More
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Passive devices developed in previous studies for drag reduction of square-...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 15 Passive devices developed in previous studies for drag reduction of square-back vehicle models Passive devices developed in previous studies for drag reduction of square-back vehicle models More
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Actuators developed by previous studies in flow separation control at the u...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 16 Actuators developed by previous studies in flow separation control at the upper edge of the rear window ( φ  = 25 deg) Actuators developed by previous studies in flow separation control at the upper edge of the rear window (φ = 25 deg) More
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Time-averaged sectional streamlines in the symmetry plane of  y * = 0 ( a )...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 17 Time-averaged sectional streamlines in the symmetry plane of y * = 0 ( a ) in the base flow and ( b ) with S 1 at θ S 1  = 90 deg and C   μ S 1  = 1.1 × 10 −2 . The broken line and symbols “×” and “+” denote the bubble size, saddle point, and the focus, respectively... More
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Time-averaged sectional streamlines and streamwise vorticity        ω    x ...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 18 Time-averaged sectional streamlines and streamwise vorticity ω x * ¯ -contours in the ( y , z ) plane of x * = 0.2 ( a ) in the base flow and ( b ) with S 1 at θ S 1  = 90 deg and C   μ S 1  = 1.1 × 10 −2 . Reproduced with permission from Zhang ... More
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Changes in flow structures over the rear window under slot suction at the u...
Published Online: January 10, 2022
Fig. 19 Changes in flow structures over the rear window under slot suction at the upper edge of the rear window with φ  = 25 deg in ( a ) the base flow and ( b ) with active control. Reproduced with permission from Rouméas et al. [ 90 ]. Copyright 2009 by Wiley. Changes in flow structures over ... More