The microvascular organization and thermal equilibration of the primary and secondary arteries and veins that comprise the bleed off circulation to the muscle fibers from the parent countercurrent supply artery and veins are analyzed. The blood perfusion heat source term in the tissue energy equation is shown to be related to this vascular organization and to undergo a fundamental change in behavior as one proceeds from the more peripheral tissue, where the perfusion term is proportional to the Ta - Tv difference in the parent supply vessels, to the deeper tissue layers where the bleed off vessels themselves form a branching countercurrent system for each muscle tissue cylinder and the venous return temperature can vary between the local tissue temperature and Ta. The consequences of this change in behavior are examined for the Weinbaum-Jiji bioheat equation and a modified expression for the effective conductivity of perfused tissue is derived for countercurrent bleed off exchange.

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