An instrumented wheel system for three-dimensional kinetic analysis of upper extremity during wheelchair propulsion has been designed and validated. This system allows the direct measurements of three-dimensional dynamic forces and moments on the handrim during wheelchair propulsion in a laboratory setting as well as in the field. Static loading tests showed a high linearity and little drift (coefficient of determination, r2 > 0.999). Under dynamic loading, the instrumented wheel provided the well-matched measurement forces and moments with the predicted values from the inverse dynamic method using video-based kinematic data (correlation coefficient, ρ > 0.97). The three-dimensional handrim forces and moments during wheelchair propulsion by a non-disabled subject were demonstrated.

1.
Asato
K. T.
,
Cooper
R. A.
,
Robertson
R. N.
, and
Ster
J. F.
,
1993
, “
Smart Wheels: Development and testing of a system for measuring manual wheelchair propulsion dynamics
,”
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.
,
40
(
12
),
1320
1324
.
2.
Bayley
J. C.
,
Cochran
T. P.
, and
Sledge
C. B.
,
1987
, “
The weight bearing shoulder: the impingement syndrome in paraplegics
,”
J. Bone and Joint Surgery (AM)
,
69
,
676
678
.
3.
Cooper
R. A.
,
Robertson
R. N.
,
VanSickle
D. P.
,
Boninger
M. L.
, and
Shimada
S. D.
,
1997
, “
Methods for determining three-dimensional wheelchair pushrim forces and moments: A technical note
,”
J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.
,
34
(
2
),
162
170
.
4.
Gellman
H.
,
Sie
I.
, and
Waters
R. L.
,
1988
, “
Late complications of the weight bearing upper extremity in the paraplegic patient
,”
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
,
233
,
132
135
.
5.
Glaser
R. M.
,
Sawka
M. N.
,
Brune
M. F.
, and
Wilde
S. W.
,
1980
, “
Physiological responses to maximal effort wheelchair and arm crank ergometry
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
48
(
6
),
1060
1064
.
6.
McCormack
D. A. R.
,
Reid
D. C.
,
Steadward
R. D.
, and
Syrotuik
,
1991
, “
Injury profiles in wheelchair athletes: results of a retrospective survey
,”
Clin. J. Sport Med.
,
1
,
35
40
.
7.
Nichols
P. J. R.
,
Norman
P. A.
, and
Ennis
J. R.
,
1979
, “
Wheelchair user’s shoulder?
,”
Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
,
11
,
29
33
.
8.
Pentland
W. E.
, and
Twomey
L. T.
,
1991
, “
The weight bearing upper extremity in women with long term paraplegia
,”
Paraplegia
,
29
,
521
530
.
9.
Robertson
R. N.
,
Boninger
M. L.
,
Cooper
R. A.
, and
Shimada
S. D.
,
1996
, “
Pushrim forces and joint kinetics during wheelchair propulsion
,”
Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
,
77
,
856
864
.
10.
Strauss, M. G., Moeinzadeh, M. H., Schneller, M., and Trimble, I., 1989, “The development of an instrumented wheel to determine the handrim forces during wheelchair propulsion,” Proc. ASME Winter Ann. Meeting. 53–54.
11.
Strauss, M. G., Maloney, I., Ngo, F., and Phillips, M., 1991, “Measurement of the dynamic forces during manual wheelchair propulsion,” Proc. Am. Soc. Biomechanics 15th Annu. Meeting. 210–211.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.