A three-dimensional, neuromusculoskeletal model of the body was combined with dynamic optimization theory to simulate normal walking on level ground. The body was modeled as a 23 degree-of-freedom mechanical linkage, actuated by 54 muscles. The dynamic optimization problem was to calculate the muscle excitation histories, muscle forces, and limb motions subject to minimum metabolic energy expenditure per unit distance traveled. Muscle metabolic energy was calculated by summing five terms: the basal or resting heat, activation heat, maintenance heat, shortening heat, and the mechanical work done by all the muscles in the model. The gait cycle was assumed to be symmetric; that is, the muscle excitations for the right and left legs and the initial and terminal states in the model were assumed to be equal. Importantly, a tracking problem was not solved. Rather, only a set of terminal constraints was placed on the states of the model to enforce repeatability of the gait cycle. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with patterns of body-segmental displacements, ground-reaction forces, and muscle activations obtained from experiment show that the simulation reproduces the salient features of normal gait. The simulation results suggest that minimum metabolic energy per unit distance traveled is a valid measure of walking performance.
Dynamic Optimization of Human Walking
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division October 21, 1999; revised manuscript received May 16, 2001. Associate Editor: M. L. Hull.
Anderson , F. C., and Pandy, M. G. (May 16, 2001). "Dynamic Optimization of Human Walking ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2001; 123(5): 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1392310
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