The field of tissue engineering has been continuously evolving since its inception over three decades ago with numerous new advancements in biomaterials and cell sources and widening applications to most tissues in the body. Despite the substantial promise and great opportunities for the advancement of current medical therapies and procedures, the field has yet to capture wide clinical translation due to some remaining challenges, including oxygen availability within constructs, both in vitro and in vivo. While this insufficiency of nutrients, specifically oxygen, is a limitation within the current frameworks of this field, the literature shows promise in new technological advances to efficiently provide adequate delivery of nutrients to cells. This review attempts to capture the most recent advances in the field of oxygen transport in hydrogel-based tissue engineering, including a comparison of current research as it pertains to the modeling, sensing, and optimization of oxygen within hydrogel constructs as well as new technological innovations to overcome traditional diffusion-based limitations. The application of these findings can further the advancement and development of better hydrogel-based tissue engineered constructs for future clinical translation and adoption.