Abstract

In recent years, the use of methods to investigate muscle–tendon unit function that combine motion capture with ultrasound (MoCapUS) has increased. Although several limitations and individual errors of these methods have been reported, the total error from all the potential sources together has not been estimated. The aim of this study was to establish the total error in the Achilles tendon (AT) measurements, specifically its length (ATL), strain (ATS), and moment arm (ATMA) acquired with MoCapUS during running. The total error from digitizing, marker movement, ultrasound calibration, and probe rotation errors caused mean ATL error of 4.2 ± 0.6 mm, mean ATMA error of 0.1 ± 0.1 mm, and could potentially alter measured ATS by a mean 2.9 ± 0.2%. Correcting both the calcaneus insertion position (CIP) and properly synchronizing ultrasound and motion capture data caused changes of up to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm in ATL and 11.6 ± 1.3 mm in ATMA. CIP correction and synchronization caused a similar amount of change in ATL, as well as ATS. However, the ATMA change was almost exclusively due to the CIP correction. Finally, if all sources of error were combined, the total ATL error could reach 13.1 mm, the total ATMA error could reach 14.4 mm, and ATS differences could reach up to  ± 6.7%. The magnitude of such errors emphasizes the fact that MoCapUS-based AT measurements must be interpreted within the scope of their corresponding errors.

References

1.
Cronin
,
N. J.
, and
Lichtwark
,
G.
,
2013
, “
The Use of Ultrasound to Study Muscle–Tendon Function in Human Posture and Locomotion
,”
Gait Posture
,
37
(
3
), pp.
305
312
.10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.024
2.
Farris
,
D. J.
,
Trewartha
,
G.
, and
McGuigan
,
M. P.
,
2012
, “
The Effects of a 30-Min Run on the Mechanics of the Human Achilles Tendon
,”
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
,
112
(
2
), pp.
653
660
.10.1007/s00421-011-2019-8
3.
Werkhausen
,
A.
,
Cronin
,
N. J.
,
Albracht
,
K.
,
Paulsen
,
G.
,
Larsen
,
A. V.
,
Bojsen-Møller
,
J.
, and
Seynnes
,
O. R.
,
2019
, “
Training-Induced Increase in Achilles Tendon Stiffness Affects Tendon Strain Pattern During Running
,”
PeerJ.
,
7
, p.
e6764
.10.7717/peerj.6764
4.
Clark
,
W. H.
, and
Franz
,
J. R.
,
2018
, “
Do Triceps Surae Muscle Dynamics Govern Non-Uniform Achilles Tendon Deformations?
,”
PeerJ.
,
6
, p.
e5182
.10.7717/peerj.5182
5.
Ishikawa
,
M.
,
Komi
,
P. V.
,
Grey
,
M. J.
,
Lepola
,
V.
, and
Bruggemann
,
G. P.
,
2005
, “
Muscle-Tendon Interaction and Elastic Energy Usage in Human Walking
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
99
(
2
), pp.
603
608
.10.1152/japplphysiol.00189.2005
6.
Lichtwark
,
G. A.
, and
Wilson
,
A. M.
,
2006
, “
Interactions Between the Human Gastrocnemius Muscle and the Achilles Tendon During Incline, Level and Decline Locomotion
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
,
209
(
21
), pp.
4379
4388
.10.1242/jeb.02434
7.
Epstein
,
M.
,
Wong
,
M.
, and
Herzog
,
W.
,
2006
, “
Should Tendon and Aponeurosis Be Considered in Series?
,”
J. Biomech.
,
39
(
11
), pp.
2020
2025
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.06.011
8.
Finni
,
T.
,
Peltonen
,
J.
,
Stenroth
,
L.
, and
Cronin
,
N. J.
,
2013
, “
Viewpoint: On the Hysteresis in the Human Achilles Tendon
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
114
(
4
), pp.
515
517
.10.1152/japplphysiol.01005.2012
9.
Matijevich
,
E. S.
,
Branscombe
,
L. M.
, and
Zelik
,
K. E.
,
2018
, “
Ultrasound Estimates of Achilles Tendon Exhibit Unexpected Shortening During Ankle Plantarflexion
,”
J. Biomech.
,
72
, pp.
200
206
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.03.013
10.
Seynnes
,
O. R.
,
Bojsen-Møller
,
J.
,
Albracht
,
K.
,
Arndt
,
A.
,
Cronin
,
N. J.
,
Finni
,
T.
, and
Magnusson
,
S. P.
,
2015
, “
Ultrasound-Based Testing of Tendon Mechanical Properties: A Critical Evaluation
,”
J. Appl. Physiol.
,
118
(
2
), pp.
133
141
.10.1152/japplphysiol.00849.2014
11.
Zelik
,
K. E.
, and
Franz
,
J. R.
,
2017
, “
It's Positive to Be Negative: Achilles Tendon Work Loops During Human Locomotion
,”
PLoS One
,
12
(
7
), p.
e0179976
.10.1371/journal.pone.0179976
12.
Farris
,
D. J.
,
Trewartha
,
G.
, and
McGuigan
,
M. P.
,
2011
, “
Could Intra-Tendinous Hyperthermia During Running Explain Chronic Injury of the Human Achilles Tendon?
,”
J. Biomech.
,
44
(
5
), pp.
822
826
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.12.015
13.
Lichtwark
,
G. A.
, and
Wilson
,
A. M.
,
2005
, “
In Vivo Mechanical Properties of the Human Achilles Tendon During One-Legged Hopping
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
,
208
(
24
), pp.
4715
4725
.10.1242/jeb.01950
14.
Wade
,
F. E.
,
Lewis
,
G. S.
, and
Piazza
,
S. J.
,
2019
, “
Estimates of Achilles Tendon Moment Arm Differ When Axis of Ankle Rotation is Derived From Ankle Motion
,”
J. Biomech.
,
90
, pp.
71
77
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.04.032
15.
Rasske
,
K.
,
Thelen
,
D. G.
, and
Franz
,
J. R.
,
2017
, “
Variation in the Human Achilles Tendon Moment Arm During Walking
,”
Comput. Methods. Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
20
(
2
), pp.
201
205
.10.1080/10255842.2016.1213818
16.
Kristianslund
,
E.
,
Krosshaug
,
T.
, and
van den Bogert
,
A. J.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Low Pass Filtering on Joint Moments From Inverse Dynamics: Implications for Injury Prevention
,”
J. Biomech.
,
45
(
4
), pp.
666
671
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.12.011
17.
Challis
,
J. H.
,
1995
, “
A Procedure for Determining Rigid Body Transformation Parameters
,”
J. Biomech.
,
28
(
6
), pp.
733
737
.10.1016/0021-9290(94)00116-L
18.
Spoor
,
C. W.
, and
Veldpaus
,
F. E.
,
1980
, “
Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Co-Ordinates of Markers
,”
J. Biomech.
,
13
(
4
), pp.
391
393
.10.1016/0021-9290(80)90020-2
19.
Woltring
,
H. J.
,
Huiskes
,
R.
,
de Lange
,
A.
, and
Veldpaus
,
F. E.
,
1985
, “
Finite Centroid and Helical Axis Estimation From Noisy Landmark Measurements in the Study of Human Joint Kinematics
,”
J. Biomech.
,
18
(
5
), pp.
379
389
.10.1016/0021-9290(85)90293-3
20.
Lewis
,
G. S.
,
Sommer
,
H. J.
, and
Piazza
,
S. J.
,
2006
, “
In Vitro Assessment of a Motion-Based Optimization Method for Locating the Talocrural and Subtalar Joint Axes
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
128
(
4
), pp.
596
603
.10.1115/1.2205866
21.
Dumas
,
R.
,
Aissaoui
,
R.
, and
De Guise
,
J. A.
,
2004
, “
A 3D Generic Inverse Dynamic Method Using Wrench Notation and Quaternion Algebra
,”
Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
7
(
3
), pp.
159
166
.10.1080/10255840410001727805
22.
de Leva
,
P.
,
1996
, “
Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters
,”
J. Biomech.
,
29
(
9
), pp.
1223
1230
.10.1016/0021-9290(95)00178-6
23.
Zatsiorsky
,
V. M.
, and
Prilutsky
,
B. I.
,
2012
,
Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscles
,
Human Kinetics
,
Leeds, UK
.10.5040/9781492595298
24.
Taylor
,
J. R.
,
1997
,
An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements
,
University Science Books
,
Sausalito, CA
.
25.
Marsden
,
J. E.
, and
Tromba
,
A. J.
,
1988
,
Vector Calculus
,
Freeman Co
,
San Francisco, CA
.
26.
Farris
,
D. J.
,
Buckeridge
,
E.
,
Trewartha
,
G.
, and
McGuigan
,
M. P.
,
2012
, “
The Effects of Orthotic Heel Lifts on Achilles Tendon Force and Strain During Running
,”
J. Appl. Biomech.
,
28
(
5
), pp.
511
519
.10.1123/jab.28.5.511
27.
Wren
,
T. A. L.
,
Yerby
,
S. A.
,
Beaupre
,
G. S.
, and
Carter
,
D. R.
,
2001
, “
Mechanical Properties of the Human Achilles Tendon
,”
Clin. Biomech.
,
16
(
3
), pp.
245
251
.10.1016/S0268-0033(00)00089-9
You do not currently have access to this content.