This paper presents dynamic modeling, controller design, and virtual reality (VR)-based human-in-the-loop real-time simulation for a wheel loader control system. In particular, a loader with electrohydraulic actuation is considered. A detailed nonlinear dynamic model is developed for the hydraulic system and the loader linkage. The hydraulic model includes a load sensing pump, valves, and cylinders. The linkage model represents a two degree of freedom loader with lift and tilt functions. A linear quadratic Gaussian based robust controller is designed for automatic bucket leveling to assist the operator by keeping the angle of the bucket leveled while the boom is in motion. The closed-loop control system design is tested with a nonlinear model in a real-time VR simulation. In the VR simulation, the operator interacts with the model using a joystick input. The loader linkage geometry is displayed to the operator in real time using a VR display. The controller performance was assessed in the VR environment. As expected, the controller was found to provide a significant improvement in the accuracy of the bucket leveling, particularly in the case of a novice operator controlling the linkage motion. While prototypes cannot be eliminated, the VR simulation combined with realistic physics and control dynamics provided a useful tool for evaluating hydraulic systems and controls with less reliance on prototype machines.
Modeling and Control of a Wheel Loader With a Human-in-the-Loop Assessment Using Virtual Reality
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Fales, R., Spencer, E., Chipperfield, K., Wagner, F., and Kelkar, A. (September 7, 2004). "Modeling and Control of a Wheel Loader With a Human-in-the-Loop Assessment Using Virtual Reality." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. September 2005; 127(3): 415–423. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1985437
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