Human operated, hydraulic actuated machines are widely used in many high-power applications. Improving productivity, safety and task quality (e.g., haptic feedback in a teleoperated scenario) has been the focus of past research. For robotic systems that interact with the physical environments, passivity is a useful property for ensuring safety and interaction stability. While passivity is a well utilized concept in electromechanical robotic systems, investigation of electrohydraulic control systems that enforce this passivity property are rare. This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a teleoperation control algorithm that renders a hydraulic backhoe/force feedback joystick system as a two-port, coordinated, passive machine. By fully accounting for the fluid compressibility, inertia dynamics and nonlinearity, coordination performance is much improved over a previous scheme in which the coordination control approximates the hydraulic system by its kinematic behavior. This is accomplished by a novel bond graph based three step design methodology: (1) energetically invariant transformation of the system into a pair of “shape” and “locked” subsystems; (2) inversion of the shape system bond graph to derive the coordination control law; (3) use of the locked system bond graph to derive an appropriate control law to achieve a target locked system dynamics while ensuring the passivity property of the coordinated system. The proposed passive control law has been experimentally verified for its bilateral energy transfer ability and performance enhancements.
Bond Graph Based Approach to Passive Teleoperation of a Hydraulic Backhoe
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Krishnaswamy, K., and Li, P. Y. (November 19, 2005). "Bond Graph Based Approach to Passive Teleoperation of a Hydraulic Backhoe." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. March 2006; 128(1): 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2168475
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