The best exoskeleton control strategy depends on the task, motivating the development and analysis of an exoskeleton capable of position, force, and impedance control. In this paper, we implement and compare the three controller types via sliding mode control on a custom-built pneumatic cylinder ankle exoskeleton. To evaluate each controller's performance, the exoskeleton was tested on the benchtop and with human subject experiments. With the position controller, the exoskeleton achieved an root-mean-square error (RMSE) of under 5 deg for both the benchtop and human tests. It had a bandwidth of approximately 12 rad/s. The force controller tracked sinusoidal trajectories acceptably well at low frequencies (15% of force range at 6 rad/s), with a bandwidth of approximately 24 rad/s. The error was significantly higher (RMSE of 24% of force range) for the more biologically relevant trajectory. The impedance controller demonstrated the desired spring-like behavior, with position RMSE generally under 5 deg compared to expected position. All three controllers worked equally well for benchtop and human tests. Thus, a pneumatically powered ankle exoskeleton with sliding mode control is capable of accurate position and impedance control and is capable of marginally acceptable force control.