Bond graphs have been used to construct a distributed-parameter model of the human cardiovascular system. The model includes the heart and arterial, capillary, and venous segments of both the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Anatomical and physiological data were utilized in implementing the model on a large digital computer. Comparisons of simulated output and measured responses are shown. Because a general-purpose bond graph simulation language for distributed-parameter systems was used, this cardiovascular simulation retains considerable flexibility and can be modified to suit the application. One such application that has been investigated in detail is the simulation of the body motions caused by blood flow in a subject mechanically isolated from the earth. This measurement, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) holds the possibility of a noninvasive means of determining heart output.
A Large-Scale Model of the Human Cardiovascular System and its Application to Ballistocardiography
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Auslander, D. M., Lobdell, T. E., and Chong, D. (September 1, 1972). "A Large-Scale Model of the Human Cardiovascular System and its Application to Ballistocardiography." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. September 1972; 94(3): 230–238. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3426593
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