This paper proposes an adaptive higher-order sliding mode (AHOSM) control method based on the adaptive fuzzy logic system for steer-by-wire (SbW) system to achieve the tracking control of the front wheels steering angle. First, an adaptive fuzzy logic system is adopted to estimate the unknown dynamics of the SbW system. Then, the AHOSM control is constructed to overcome the lumped uncertainties including unknown external perturbation and fuzzy logic system approximation error, and has the advantage of attenuating the chattering caused by the discontinuous control signal. Finally, the adaptation scheme is designed for the dynamic gain of the proposed AHOSM controller without a priori knowledge of the bounds of the uncertainties. In contrast to the existing controllers applied in the SbW system, this controller has a better control performance in practical application. By means of Lyapunov stability analysis, it is theoretically proved that the system trajectory converges to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin in finite time. Simulations and vehicle experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.