Pipeline Integrity Management Under Geohazard Conditions (PIMG)
Chapter 32 DRAFT: ILI, IN-DITCH AND PERMANENTLY INSTALLED TOOLS FOR STRESS/STRAIN IMAGING AND MONITORING
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This paper addresses the ability to image and monitor strain (or stress), both residual and applied, in pipelines and other carbon steel structures such as risers and vessels. Strain (or stress) monitoring is needed to assess pipeline integrity after events such as ground motion, operating excesses, and prolonged operation in extreme environments. Three techniques are described: (1) an in-line-inspection (ILI) tool, (2) an in-ditch or above ground imaging method, and (3) a permanently installed approach. Each of these methods uses MWM sensors and MWM-Arrays to make non-contact measurements of the steel’s magnetic properties, which are then correlated to strain...