A thermal model of the infrared reflow soldering process is developed and sample predictions are reported. The model, which accounts for coupled radiation, mixed convection and conduction heat transfer, is capable of predicting relevant thermal effects ranging from the convection characteristics within the IR oven to the detailed thermal response, including solid-liquid phase change, of individual solder connections. Although the heat transfer here is radiatively dominated, mixed convection and conduction effects are important in determining the thermal response of the card assembly.

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