In the present work, a novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology was developed to simulate full-scale non-premixed rotating detonation engines (RDEs). A unique feature of the modeling approach was the incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to achieve a good trade-off between model accuracy and computational expense. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed for an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) non-premixed RDE configuration with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidizer. The finite-rate chemistry model, along with a ten-species detailed kinetic mechanism, was employed to describe the H2-Air combustion chemistry. Three distinct operating conditions were simulated, corresponding to the same global equivalence ratio of unity but different fuel/air mass flowrates. For all conditions, the capability of the model to capture essential detonation wave dynamics was assessed. An exhaustive verification and validation study was performed against experimental data in terms of a number of waves, wave frequency, wave height, reactant fill height, oblique shock angle, axial pressure distribution in the channel, and fuel/air plenum pressure. The CFD model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensitivity of these wave characteristics to the operating conditions, both qualitatively and quantitatively. A comprehensive heat release analysis was also conducted to quantify detonative versus deflagrative burning for the three simulated cases. The present CFD model offers a potential capability to perform rapid design space exploration and/or performance optimization studies for realistic full-scale RDE configurations.