The production capacity of the gas wells is seriously affected by salt deposition during the injection and production process for underground gas storage with high salt content, so it is necessary to predict the production performance through well test technology. However, the existing well test analysis methods cannot be reliably used to interpret the well test data affected by salt deposition phase change and high-speed non-Darcy flow during the injection and production process. Therefore, this paper first determines the relationship between salt deposition and temperature and pressure through flash calculation of phase equilibrium of saltwater and hydrocarbon system, then establishes a porosity and permeability model considering the effect of salt deposition, and further establishes a high-speed injection-production well test analysis model considering the effect of salt deposition in combination with Forchheimer’s percolation law. Finally, the model is solved by numerical method, and the dynamic changes of reservoir pressure and salt deposition are simulated and calculated. The results show that the higher the salinity of formation water is, the greater the risk of salt deposition in the reservoir is, and the permeability of the reservoir will significantly decrease after salt deposition occurs; the non-Darcy flow effect will aggravate the risk of salt deposition in the reservoir. The research results provide a theoretical method for the evaluation of reservoir parameters and production performance prediction of salt gas storage reservoirs.